Becoming a Chartered Accountant in various countries in Europe (Part 2)


Each country in Europe has its own accounting body and accounting qualification.

  • Finland
    Title: KHT or HTM

KHT is regarded as the primary qualification and is authorised by the Central Chamber of Commerce in Finland. Students must fulfil certain educational requirements, hold relevant professional experience and pass an examination of professional competence. Students must have completed studies necessary for the duties of an auditor in subjects which are laid down in the regulation of the Ministry of Trade and Industry and obtained a minimum of three years practical experience under the supervision of a KHT.

  • France
    Title: Expert Comptable

Whilst there are a number of routes to qualification in France, the majority of candidates enter the process upon completion of a degree from a business school. Qualification typically takes four years and passes through the following intermediate diplomas:

  • DPECF (Diplôme Préparatoire aux Etudes Comptables et Financères) Written tests on employment law, economics and accounting…
  • DECF (Diplôme d’Etudes Comptables et Financères) Written tests on law, economics, management, accounting and controlling…
  • DESCF (Diplôme d’Etudes Supérieures Comptables et Financères) Written and oral tests.

Upon completion of these exams there follows a three-year traineeship with a practice firm followed by the presentation of a thesis on a subject related to the professional domain. The candidate must also pass a further two examinations: a written test on the statutory and contractual auditing of financial statements and an oral test relating to the traineeship and covering professional knowledge in general.

  • Germany
    Title: Wirtschaftspruefer

Whilst there are a number of routes to qualification, most students will first qualify as a ‘Steuerberater’ (A chartered German ‘Tax adviser’), which comprises three written examinations and one oral examination before deciding to move onto the Wirtschaftspruefer.

There are relatively few Witschaftpruefers in Germany. On a long term average only 50% of applicants are successful.

  • Hungary
    Title: HCA

Students need a relevant business degree, followed by three years professional experience, followed by a two year long education programme. Upon completion, the student becomes a qualified auditor. However, it is only after completing a further three year training programme that students become a full Chartered Accountant.

Contributed by Jyotsna Singh

For previous part

Website – CA Learning

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